Domestic and Faithfull animal.

The dog (Canis familiaris[4][5] or Canis lupus familiaris[5]) is a domesticated descendant of the wolf. Also called the domestic dog, it is derived from extinct Pleistocene wolves,[6][7] and the modern wolf is the dog’s nearest living relative.[8] Dogs were the first species to be domesticated[9][8] by hunter-gatherers over 15,000 years ago[7] before the development of agriculture.[1] Due to their long association with humans, dogs have expanded to a large number of domestic individuals[10] and gained the ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids.[11]

The dog has been selectively bred over millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.[12] Dog breeds vary widely in shape, size, and color. They perform many roles for humans, such as huntingherdingpulling loadsprotectionassisting police and the militarycompanionshiptherapy, and aiding disabled people. Over the millennia, dogs became uniquely adapted to human behavior, and the human–canine bond has been a topic of frequent study.[13] This influence on human society has given them the sobriquet of “man’s best friend“.[14]


Further information: Canis lupus dingo § Taxonomic debate – the domestic dog, dingo, and New Guinea singing dog

In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae, the two-word naming of species (binomial nomenclature). Canis is the Latin word meaning “dog”,[15] and under this genus, he listed the domestic dog, the wolf, and the golden jackal. He classified the domestic dog as Canis familiaris and, on the next page, classified the grey wolf as Canis lupus.[2] Linnaeus considered the dog to be a separate species from the wolf because of its upturning tail (cauda recurvata), which is not found in any other canid.[16]

In 1999, a study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) indicated that the domestic dog may have originated from the grey wolf, with the dingo and New Guinea singing dog breeds having developed at a time when human communities were more isolated from each other.[17] In the third edition of Mammal Species of the World published in 2005, the mammalogist W. Christopher Wozencraft listed under the wolf Canis lupus its wild subspecies and proposed two additional subspecies, which formed the domestic dog clade: familiaris, as named by Linnaeus in 1758 and, dingo named by Meyer in 1793. Wozencraft included hallstromi (the New Guinea singing dog) as another name (junior synonym) for the dingo. Wozencraft referred to the mtDNA study as one of the guides informing his decision.[3] Mammalogists have noted the inclusion of familiaris and dingo together under the “domestic dog” clade[18] with some debating it.[19]

In 2019, a workshop hosted by the IUCN/Species Survival Commission’s Canid Specialist Group considered the dingo and the New Guinea singing dog to be feral Canis familiaris and therefore did not assess them for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[4]

Temporal range: 0.0142–0 Ma PreꞒOSDCPTJKPgNLate Pleistocene to present[1]
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Species:C. familiaris
Binomial name
Canis familiaris
Linnaeus, 1758[2]


Main article: Evolution of the wolf

Location of a dog’s carnassials; the inside of the 4th upper premolar aligns with the outside of the 1st lower molar, working like scissor blades


Main article: Domestication of the dog

The earliest remains generally accepted to be those of a domesticated dog were discovered in Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany. Contextual, isotopic, genetic, and morphological evidence shows that this dog was not a local wolf.[20] The dog was dated to 14,223 years ago and was found buried along with a man and a woman, all three having been sprayed with red hematite powder and buried under large, thick basalt blocks. The dog had died of canine distemper.[21] Earlier remains dating back to 30,000 years ago have been described as Paleolithic dogs, but their status as dogs or wolves remains debated[22] because considerable morphological diversity existed among wolves during the Late Pleistocene.[1]

This timing indicates that the dog was the first species to be domesticated[9][8] in the time of hunter–gatherers,[7] which predates agriculture.[1] DNA sequences show that all ancient and modern dogs share a common ancestry and descended from an ancient, extinct wolf population which was distinct from the modern wolf lineage.[6][7]

The dog is a classic example of a domestic animal that likely travelled a commensal pathway into domestication.[22][23] The questions of when and where dogs were first domesticated have taxed geneticists and archaeologists for decades.[9] Genetic studies suggest a domestication process commencing over 25,000 years ago, in one or several wolf populations in either Europe, the high Arctic, or eastern Asia.[10] In 2021, a literature review of the current evidence infers that the dog was domesticated in Siberia 23,000 years ago by ancient North Siberians, then later dispersed eastward into the Americas and westward across Eurasia,[20] with dogs likely accompanying the first humans to inhabit the Americas. The oldest unambiguous dog remains are from Oberkassel in Germany, dating to around 15,000 years ago[24]


Main article: Dog breed

Further information: Dog type

Dog breeds show a huge range of phenotypic variation

Dogs are the most variable mammal on earth with around 450 globally recognized dog breeds.[10] In the Victorian era, directed human selection developed the modern dog breeds, which resulted in a vast range of phenotypes.[8] Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within the last 200 years,[8][10] and since then dogs have undergone rapid phenotypic change and were formed into today’s modern breeds due to artificial selection imposed by humans. The skull, body, and limb proportions vary significantly between breeds, with dogs displaying more phenotypic diversity than can be found within the entire order of carnivores. These breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur type and colour.[8] Their behavioural traits include guarding, herding, and hunting,[8] retrieving, and scent detection. Their personality traits include hypersocial behavior, boldness, and aggression,[10] which demonstrates the functional and behavioral diversity of dogs.[8] As a result, present day dogs are the most abundant carnivore species and are dispersed around the world.[10] The most striking example of this dispersal is that of the numerous modern breeds of European lineage during the Victorian era.[7]

Bangladeshi Dog



Main article: Dog anatomy


A lateral view of a dog skeleton

All healthy dogs, regardless of their size and type, have an identical skeletal structure with the exception of the number of bones in the tail, although there is significant skeletal variation between dogs of different types.[25][26] The dog’s skeleton is well adapted for running; the vertebrae on the neck and back have extensions for powerful back muscles to connect to, the long ribs provide plenty of room for the heart and lungs, and the shoulders are unattached to the skeleton allowing great flexibility.[25][26]

Compared to the dog’s wolf-like ancestors, selective breeding since domestication has seen the dog’s skeleton greatly enhanced in size for larger types as mastiffs and miniaturised for smaller types such as terriersdwarfism has been selectively utilised for some types where short legs are advantageous such as dachshunds and corgis.[26] Most dogs naturally have 26 vertebrae in their tails, but some with naturally short tails have as few as three.[25]

The dog’s skull has identical components regardless of breed type, but there is significant divergence in terms of skull shape between types.[26][27] The three basic skull shapes are the elongated dolichocephalic type as seen in sighthounds, the intermediate mesocephalic or mesaticephalic type, and the very short and broad brachycephalic type exemplified by mastiff type skulls.[26][27]


Further information: Dog anatomy § Senses

A dog’s senses include vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch. One study suggested that dogs can feel Earth’s magnetic field.[28]


Main article: Dog coat

Dogs display wide variation in coat type, density, length, color, and composition

The coats of domestic dogs are of two varieties: “double” being familiar with dogs (as well as wolves) originating from colder climates, made up of a coarse guard hair and a soft down hair, or “single”, with the topcoat only. Breeds may have an occasional “blaze”, stripe, or “star” of white fur on their chest or underside.[29] Premature graying can occur in dogs from as early as one year of age; this is associated with impulsive behaviorsanxiety behaviors, fear of noise, and fear of unfamiliar people or animals.[30]


There are many different shapes for dog tails: straight, straight up, sickle, curled, or corkscrew. As with many canids, one of the primary functions of a dog’s tail is to communicate their emotional state, which can be crucial in getting along with others. In some hunting dogs the tail is traditionally docked to avoid injuries.


Main article: Dog health

Some breeds of dogs are prone to specific genetic ailments such as elbow and hip dysplasiablindnessdeafnesspulmonic stenosiscleft palate, and trick knees. Two severe medical conditions significantly affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all breeds and ages, and Gastric dilatation volvulus (bloat), which affects larger breeds or deep-chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions and can kill rapidly. Dogs are also susceptible to parasites such as fleasticksmiteshookwormstapewormsroundworms, and heartworms, which is a roundworm species that lives in the hearts of dogs.

Several human foods and household ingestible are toxic to dogs, including chocolate solids, causing theobromine poisoningonions and garlic, causing thiosulphatesulfoxide or disulfide poisoning, grapes and raisinsmacadamia nuts, and xylitol.[31] The nicotine in tobacco can also be dangerous to dogs. Signs of ingestion can include copious vomiting (e.g., from eating cigar butts) or diarrhea. Some other symptoms are abdominal painloss of coordination, collapse, or death.[32][page needed]

Dogs are also vulnerable to some of the same health conditions as humans, including diabetesdental and heart diseaseepilepsycancerhypothyroidism, and arthritis.


Further information: Aging in dogs

The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds, but for most, the median longevity (the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive) ranges from 10 to 13 years.[33][34] The median longevity of mixed-breed dogs, taken as an average of all sizes, is one or more years longer than that of purebred dogs when all breeds are averaged.[33][34][35] For dogs in England, increased body weight has been found to be negatively correlated with longevity (i.e., the heavier the dog, the shorter its lifespan), and mixed-breed dogs live on average 1.2 years longer than purebred dogs.[36]


Main article: Canine reproduction

A female dog nursing newborn puppies.

In domestic dogs, sexual maturity happens around six months to one year for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years of age for some large breeds, and is the time at which female dogs will have their first estrous cycle. They will experience subsequent estrous cycles semiannually, during which the body prepares for pregnancy. At the peak of the cycle, females will become estrous, mentally and physically receptive to copulation. Because the ova survive and can be fertilized for a week after ovulation, more than one male can sire the same litter.[12]

Fertilization typically occurs two to five days after ovulation; 14–16 days after ovulation, the embryo attaches to the uterus and after seven to eight more days, a heartbeat is detectable.[37][38]

Dogs bear their litters roughly 58 to 68 days after fertilization,[12][39] with an average of 63 days, although the length of gestation can vary. An average litter consists of about six puppies.[40]


Neutering is the sterilization of animals, usually by removing the male’s testicles or the female’s ovaries and uterus, to eliminate the ability to procreate and reduce sex drive. Because of dogs’ overpopulation in some countries, many animal control agencies, such as the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be neutered, so that they do not have undesired puppies that may later be euthanized.[41]

According to the Humane Society of the United States, three to four million dogs and cats are euthanized each year.[42] Many more are confined to cages in shelters because there are many more animals than there are homes. Spaying or castrating dogs helps keep overpopulation down.[43]

Neutering reduces problems caused by hypersexuality, especially in male dogs.[44] Spayed female dogs are less likely to develop cancers affecting the mammary glandsovaries, and other reproductive organs.[45][page needed] However, neutering increases the risk of urinary incontinence in female dogs[46] and prostate cancer in males[47] and osteosarcomahemangiosarcomacruciate ligament rupture, obesity, and diabetes mellitus in either sex.[48]

Inbreeding depression

A common breeding practice for pet dogs is mating between close relatives (e.g., between half and full siblings).[49] Inbreeding depression is considered to be due mainly to the expression of homozygous deleterious recessive mutations.[50] Outcrossing between unrelated individuals, including dogs of different breeds, results in the beneficial masking of deleterious recessive mutations in progeny.[51]

In a study of seven dog breeds (the Bernese Mountain DogBasset HoundCairn TerrierBrittanyGerman Shepherd DogLeonberger, and West Highland White Terrier), it was found that inbreeding decreases litter size and survival.[52] Another analysis of data on 42,855 Dachshund litters found that as the inbreeding coefficient increased, litter size decreased and the percentage of stillborn puppies increased, thus indicating inbreeding depression.[53] In a study of Boxer litters, 22% of puppies died before reaching 7 weeks of age. Stillbirth was the most frequent cause of death, followed by infection. Mortality due to infection increased significantly with increases in inbreeding.[54]


Main article: Dog behavior

See also: Dog behavior § Behavior compared with other canidsDog swimming over to catch a ball, pay attention to the leg and tail movements

Dog behavior is the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of the domestic dog (individuals or groups) to internal and external stimuli.[55] As the oldest domesticated species, dogs’ minds inevitably have been shaped by millennia of contact with humans. As a result of this physical and social evolution, dogs have acquired the ability to understand and communicate with humans more than any other species and they are uniquely attuned to human behaviors.[13] Behavioral scientists have uncovered a surprising set of social-cognitive abilities in domestic dogs. These abilities are not possessed by the dog’s closest canine relatives or other highly intelligent mammals, such as great apes, but rather parallel to children’s social-cognitive skills.[56]

Unlike other domestic species selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors.[57][58] In 2016, a study found that only 11 fixed genes showed variation between wolves and dogs.[59] These gene variations were unlikely to have been the result of natural evolution and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during dog domestication. These genes have been shown to affect the catecholamine synthesis pathway, with the majority of the genes affecting the fight-or-flight response[58][60] (i.e., selection for tameness) and emotional processing.[58] Dogs generally show reduced fear and aggression compared with wolves.[58][61] Some of these genes have been associated with aggression in some dog breeds, indicating their importance in both the initial domestication and later in breed formation.[58] Traits of high sociability and lack of fear in dogs may include genetic modifications related to Williams-Beuren syndrome in humans, which cause hypersociability at the expense of problem-solving ability.[62]


Main article: Dog intelligence

Researchers have tested dogs’ ability to perceive information, retain it as knowledge, and apply it to solve problems. Studies of two dogs suggest that dogs can learn by inference and have advanced memory skills. A study with Rico, a Border Collie, showed that he knew the labels of over 200 different items. He inferred the names of novel things by exclusion learning and correctly retrieved those new items immediately and four weeks after the initial exposure. A study of another Border Collie, Chaser, documented his learning and memory capabilities. He had learned the names and could associate by verbal command over 1,000 words.[63] Dogs can read and react appropriately to human body language such as gesturing, pointing, and human voice commands.

One study of canine cognitive abilities found that dogs’ capabilities are no more exceptional than those of other animals, such as horseschimpanzees, or cats.[64] One limited study of 18 household dogs found that they lacked spatial memory, and were more focused on the “what” of a task rather than the “where”.[65]

Dogs demonstrate a theory of mind by engaging in deception.[66] An experimental study showed compelling evidence that Australian dingos can outperform domestic dogs in non-social problem-solving, indicating that domestic dogs may have lost much of their original problem-solving abilities once they joined humans.[67] Another study revealed that after undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation task, dogs faced with an unsolvable version of the same problem look at the human, while socialized wolves do not.[68]


Main article: Dog communication

Dog sounds


A dog making noises and barking

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Dog communication is how dogs convey information to other dogs, understand messages from humans and translate the information that dogs are transmitting.[69]: xii  Communication behaviors of dogs include eye gaze, facial expression,[70][71] vocalization, body posture (including movements of bodies and limbs), and gustatory communication (scents, pheromones, and taste). Humans communicate to dogs by using vocalization, hand signals, and body posture.



The dog is probably the most widely abundant large carnivoran living in the human environment.[72][73] In 2013, the estimated global dog population was between 700 million[74] and 987 million.[75] About 20% of dogs live as pets in developed countries.[76] In the developing world, dogs are typically feral or communally owned, with pet dogs uncommon. Most of these dogs live their lives as scavengers and have never been owned by humans, with one study showing their most common response when approached by strangers is to run away (52%) or respond aggressively (11%).[77] Little is known about these dogs, or the dogs in developed countries that are feral, strays, or are in shelters because the great majority of modern research on dog cognition has focused on pet dogs living in human homes.[78]

Competitors and predators

Although dogs are the most abundant and widely distributed terrestrial carnivores, feral and free-ranging dogs’ potential to compete with other large carnivores is limited by their strong association with humans.[72] For example, a review of the studies in dogs’ competitive effects on sympatric carnivores did not mention any research on competition between dogs and wolves.[79][80] Although wolves are known to kill dogs, they tend to live in pairs or in small packs in areas where they are highly persecuted, giving them a disadvantage facing large dog groups.[79][81]

Wolves kill dogs wherever they are found together.[82] In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans and buildings when attacking dogs to the extent that they have to be beaten off or killed.[83] Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs and losses of dogs to wolves have led to demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations.[79]

Coyotes and big cats have also been known to attack dogs. In particular, leopards are known to have a preference for dogs and have been recorded to kill and consume them, no matter what their size.[84] Siberian tigers in the Amur River region have killed dogs in the middle of villages. This indicates that the dogs were targeted. Amur tigers will not tolerate wolves as competitors within their territories, and the tigers could be considering dogs in the same way.[85] Striped hyenas are known to kill dogs in their range.[86]


See also: Dog food

Golden Retriever gnawing on a pig’s foot

Dogs have been described as omnivores.[12][87][88] Compared to wolves, dogs from agricultural societies have extra copies of amylase and other genes involved in starch digestion that contribute to an increased ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet.[11] Similar to humans, some dog breeds produce amylase in their saliva and are classified as having a high starch diet.[89] However, more like cats and less like other omnivores, dogs can only produce bile acid with taurine and they cannot produce vitamin D, which they obtain from animal flesh. Of the twenty-one amino acids common to all life forms (including selenocysteine), dogs cannot synthesize ten: argininehistidineisoleucineleucinelysinemethioninephenylalaninethreoninetryptophan, and valine.[90][91][92] Also more like cats, dogs require arginine to maintain nitrogen balance. These nutritional requirements place dogs halfway between carnivores and omnivores.[93]


As a domesticated or semi-domesticated animal, the dog is nearly universal among human societies. Notable exceptions once included:

Dogs were introduced to Antarctica as sled dogs, but were later outlawed by international agreement due to the possible risk of spreading infections.[102]

Roles with humans

Main article: Human–canine bond

Domestic dogs inherited complex behaviors, such as bite inhibition, from their wolf ancestors, which would have been pack hunters with a complex body language. These sophisticated forms of social cognition and communication may account for their trainability, playfulness and ability to fit into human households and social situations. These attributes have given dogs a relationship with humans that has enabled them to become one of the most successful animals today.[103]

The dogs’ value to early human hunter-gatherers led to them quickly becoming ubiquitous across world cultures. Dogs perform many roles for people, such as huntingherdingpulling loadsprotectionassisting police and the militarycompanionship and aiding disabled individuals. This influence on human society has given them the nickname “man’s best friend” in the Western world. In some cultures, however, dogs are also a source of meat.[104][105]


Siberian Huskies are pack animals that still enjoy some human companionship

It is estimated that three-quarters of the world’s dog population lives in the developing world as feralvillage, or community dogs, with pet dogs uncommon.[106][page needed]

“The most widespread form of interspecies bonding occurs between humans and dogs”[107] and the keeping of dogs as companions, particularly by elites, has a long history.[14] Pet dog populations grew significantly after World War II as suburbanization increased.[14] In the 1950s and 1960s, dogs were kept outside more often than they tend to be today[108] (the expression “in the doghouse” – recorded since 1932[109] – to describe exclusion from the group implies a distance between the doghouse and the home) and were still primarily functional, acting as a guard, children’s playmate, or walking companion. From the 1980s, there have been changes in the pet dog’s role, such as the increased role of dogs in the emotional support of their human guardians.[110][page needed] People and their dogs have become increasingly integrated and implicated in each other’s lives[111][page needed] to the point where pet dogs actively shape how a family and home are experienced.[112]

There have been two significant trends occurring within the second half of the 20th century in pet dogs’ changing status. The first has been “commodification”, shaping it to conform to social expectations of personality and behavior.[112] The second has been the broadening of the family’s concept and the home to include dogs-as-dogs within everyday routines and practices.[112]

A vast range of commodity forms aims to transform a pet dog into an ideal companion.[113] The list of goods, services, and places available is enormous: from dog perfumes, couture, furniture and housing to dog groomers, therapists, trainers and caretakers, dog cafes, spas, parks and beaches and dog hotels, airlines and cemeteries.[113] Dog training books, classes, and television programs proliferated as the process of commodifying the pet dog continued.[114]

The majority of contemporary dog owners describe their pet as part of the family, although some ambivalence about the relationship is evident in the popular reconceptualization of the dog-human family as a pack.[112] Some dog trainers, such as on the television program Dog Whisperer, have promoted a dominance model of dog-human relationships. However, it has been disputed that “trying to achieve status” is characteristic of dog-human interactions.[115] The idea of the “alpha dog” trying to be dominant is based on a disproved theory about wolf packs.[116][117] Pet dogs play an active role in family life; for example, a study of conversations in dog-human families showed how family members use the dog as a resource, talking to the dog, or talking through the dog; to mediate their interactions with each other.[118]

Increasingly, human family-members engage in activities centered on the dog’s perceived needs and interests, or in which the dog is an integral partner, such as dog dancing and dog yoga.[113]

According to statistics published by the American Pet Products Manufacturers Association in the National Pet Owner Survey in 2009–2010, an estimated 77.5 million people in the United States have pet dogs.[119] The same source shows that nearly 40% of American households own at least one dog, of which 67% own just one dog, 25% two dogs and nearly 9% more than two dogs. There does not seem to be any gender preference among dogs as pets, as the statistical data reveal an equal number of male and female pet dogs. Although several programs promote pet adoption, less than one-fifth of the owned dogs come from shelters.[119]

A study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare humans and dogs showed that dogs have the same response to voices and use the same parts of the brain as humans do. This gives dogs the ability to recognize human emotional sounds, making them friendly social pets to humans.[120][121][122]


Dogs have lived and worked with humans in many roles. In addition to dogs’ role as companion animals, dogs have been bred for herding livestock (colliessheepdogs),[123][page needed][12] hunting (hounds, pointers)[124][page needed] and rodent control (terriers).[12] Other types of working dogs include search and rescue dogs,[125] detection dogs trained to detect illicit drugs[126] or chemical weapons;[127] guard dogs; dogs who assist fishermen with the use of nets; and dogs that pull loads.[12] In 1957, the dog Laika became the first animal to be launched into Earth orbit, aboard the Soviets‘ Sputnik 2; she died during the flight.[128][129]

Various kinds of service dogs and assistance dogs, including guide dogshearing dogsmobility assistance dogs and psychiatric service dogs, assist individuals with disabilities.[130][131] Some dogs owned by people with epilepsy have been shown to alert their handler when the handler shows signs of an impending seizure, sometimes well in advance of onset, allowing the guardian to seek safety, medication, or medical care.[132]

Athletes and models

See also: Conformation show

People often enter their dogs in competitions, such as breed-conformation shows or sports, including racing, sledding and agility competitions. In conformation shows, also referred to as breed shows, a judge familiar with the specific dog breed evaluates individual purebred dogs for conformity with their established breed type as described in the breed standard. As the breed standard only deals with the dog’s externally observable qualities (such as appearance, movement and temperament), separately tested qualities (such as ability or health) are not part of the judging in conformation shows.


Main article: Dog meat

Dog meat is consumed in some East Asian countries, including Korea,[133][page needed] China,[104] Vietnam[105] and the Philippines,[134] which dates back to antiquity.[135] Based on limited data, it is estimated that 13–16 million dogs are killed and consumed in Asia every year.[136] In China, debates have ensued over banning the consumption of dog meat.[137] Following the Sui and Tang dynasties of the first millennium, however, people living on northern China’s plains began to eschew eating dogs, which is likely due to Buddhism and Islam’s spread, two religions that forbade the consumption of certain animals, including the dog. As members of the upper classes shunned dog meat, it gradually became a social taboo to eat it, even though the general population continued to consume it for centuries afterward.[citation needed] Dog meat is also consumed in some parts of Switzerland.[138] Other cultures, such as Polynesia and pre-Columbian Mexico, also consumed dog meat in their history. Dog fat is also reportedly believed to be beneficial for the lungs in some parts of Poland[139][140] and Central Asia.[141][142] Proponents of eating dog meat have argued that placing a distinction between livestock and dogs is Western hypocrisy and that there is no difference in eating different animals’ meat.[143][144][145][146]

In Korea, the primary dog breed raised for meat, the Nureongi, differs from those breeds raised for pets that Koreans may keep in their homes.[147]

The most popular Korean dog dish is called bosintang, a spicy stew meant to balance the body’s heat during the summer months. Followers of the custom claim this is done to ensure good health by balancing one’s gi, or the body’s vital energy. A 19th-century version of bosintang explains that the dish is prepared by boiling dog meat with scallions and chili powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots. While the dishes are still prevalent in Korea with a segment of the population, dog is not as widely consumed as beef, pork and chicken.[147]

Health risks

Further information: Dog biteCanine vector-borne disease, and Dog bite prevention

In 2018, the WHO reported that 59,000 people died globally from rabies, with 59.6% in Asia and 36.4% in Africa. Rabies is a disease for which dogs are the most important vector.[148] Significant dog bites affect tens of millions of people globally each year. Children in mid-to-late childhood are the largest percentage bitten by dogs, with a greater risk of injury to the head and neck. They are more likely to need medical treatment and have the highest death rate.[149] Sharp claws with powerful muscles behind them can lacerate flesh in a scratch that can lead to serious infections.[150]

In the U.S.cats and dogs are a factor in more than 86,000 falls each year.[151] It has been estimated that around 2% of dog-related injuries treated in U.K. hospitals are domestic accidents. The same study found that while dog involvement in road traffic accidents was difficult to quantify, dog-associated road accidents involving injury more commonly involved two-wheeled vehicles.[152]

Toxocara canis (dog roundworm) eggs in dog feces can cause toxocariasis. In the United States, about 10,000 cases of Toxocara infection are reported in humans each year, and almost 14% of the U.S. population is infected.[153] Untreated toxocariasis can cause retinal damage and decreased vision.[154] Dog feces can also contain hookworms that cause cutaneous larva migrans in humans.[155][156]

Health benefits

Walking a dog

Dogs suffer from the same common disorders as humans; these include cancer, diabetes, heart disease and neurologic disorders. Their pathology is similar to humans, as is their response to treatment and their outcomes. Researchers are identifying the genes associated with dog diseases similar to human disorders, but lack mouse models to find cures for both dogs and humans. The genes involved in canine obsessive-compulsive disorders led to the detection of four genes in humans’ related pathways.[10]

The scientific evidence is mixed as to whether a dog’s companionship can enhance human physical health and psychological well-being.[157] Studies suggesting that there are benefits to physical health and psychological well-being[158] have been criticized for being poorly controlled.[159] It found that “the health of elderly people is related to their health habits and social supports but not to their ownership of, or attachment to, a companion animal.” Earlier studies have shown that people who keep pet dogs or cats exhibit better mental and physical health than those who do not, making fewer visits to the doctor and being less likely to be on medication than non-guardians.[160]

A 2005 paper states “recent research has failed to support earlier findings that pet ownership is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, a reduced use of general practitioner services, or any psychological or physical benefits on health for community dwelling older people. Research has, however, pointed to significantly less absenteeism from school through sickness among children who live with pets.”[157] In one study, new guardians reported a highly significant reduction in minor health problems during the first month following pet acquisition. This effect was sustained in those with dogs through to the end of the study.[161]

People with pet dogs took considerably more physical exercise than those with cats and those without pets. The results provide evidence that keeping pets may have positive effects on human health and behavior and that for guardians of dogs, these effects are relatively long-term.[161] Pet guardianship has also been associated with increased coronary artery disease survival. Human guardians are significantly less likely to die within one year of an acute myocardial infarction than those who did not own dogs.[162] The association between dog ownership and adult physical activity levels has been reviewed by several authors.[163]

The health benefits of dogs can result from contact with dogs in general, not solely from having dogs as pets. For example, when in a pet dog’s presence, people show reductions in cardiovascular, behavioral and psychological indicators of anxiety.[164] Other health benefits are gained from exposure to immune-stimulating microorganisms, which can protect against allergies and autoimmune diseases according to the hygiene hypothesis. The benefits of contact with a dog also include social support, as dogs cannot only provide companionship and social support themselves but also act as facilitators of social interactions between humans.[165] One study indicated that wheelchair users experience more positive social interactions with strangers when accompanied by a dog than when they are not.[166] In 2015, a study found that pet owners were significantly more likely to get to know people in their neighborhood than non-pet owners.[167]

Using dogs and other animals as a part of therapy dates back to the late 18th century, when animals were introduced into mental institutions to help socialize patients with mental disorders.[168] Animal-assisted intervention research has shown that animal-assisted therapy with a dog can increase social behaviors, such as smiling and laughing, among people with Alzheimer’s disease.[169] One study demonstrated that children with ADHD and conduct disorders who participated in an education program with dogs and other animals showed increased attendance, increased knowledge and skill objectives and decreased antisocial and violent behavior compared with those not in an animal-assisted program.[170]

Cultural importance

Main articles: Cultural depictions of dogs and Dogs in religion

Further information: List of fictional dogs

Cerberus, with the gluttons in Dante‘s Third Circle of HellWilliam Blake.

Dogs were depicted to symbolize guidanceprotectionloyaltyfidelityfaithfulnessalertness, and love.[171] In ancient Mesopotamia, from the Old Babylonian period until the Neo-Babylonian, dogs were the symbol of Ninisina, the goddess of healing and medicine,[172] and her worshippers frequently dedicated small models of seated dogs to her.[172] In the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods, dogs were used as emblems of magical protection.[172] In ChinaKorea and Japan, dogs are viewed as kind protectors.[173]

In mythology, dogs often serve as pets or as watchdogs.[173] Stories of dogs guarding the gates of the underworld recur throughout Indo-European mythologies[174][175] and may originate from Proto-Indo-European religion.[174][175] In Greek mythologyCerberus is a three-headed, dragon-tailed watchdog who guards the gates of Hades.[173] Dogs are also associated with the Greek goddess Hecate.[176] In Norse mythology, a dog called Garmr guards Hel, a realm of the dead.[173] In Persian mythology, two four-eyed dogs guard the Chinvat Bridge.[173] In Welsh mythologyAnnwn is guarded by Cŵn Annwn.[173] In Hindu mythologyYama, the god of death, owns two watchdogs who have four eyes. They are said to watch over the gates of Naraka.[177] A black dog is also considered to be the vahana (vehicle) of Bhairava (an incarnation of Shiva).[178]

In Christianity, dogs represent faithfulness.[173] Within the Roman Catholic denomination specifically, the iconography of Saint Dominic includes a dog, after the saint’s mother dreamt of a dog springing from her womb and becoming pregnant shortly after that.[179] As such, the Dominican Order (Ecclesiastical LatinDomini canis) means “dog of the Lord” or “hound of the Lord” (Ecclesiastical Latin: Domini canis).[179] In Christian folklore, a church grim often takes the form of a black dog to guard Christian churches and their churchyards from sacrilege.[180] Jewish law does not prohibit keeping dogs and other pets. Jewish law requires Jews to feed dogs (and other animals that they own) before themselves and make arrangements for feeding them before obtaining them.[citation needed] The view on dogs in Islam is mixed, with some schools of thought viewing it as unclean,[173] although Khaled Abou El Fadl states that this view is based on “pre-Islamic Arab mythology” and “a tradition to be falsely attributed to the Prophet.”[181] Therefore, Sunni Malaki and Hanafi jurists permit the trade of and keeping of dogs as pets.[182]


  • Dog – the species (or subspecies) as a whole, also any male member of the same.[183]
  • Bitch – any female member of the species (or subspecies).[184]
  • Puppy or pup – a young member of the species (or subspecies) under 12 months old.[185]
  • Sire – the male parent of a litter.[185]
  • Dam – the female parent of a litter.[185]
  • Litter – all of the puppies resulting from a single whelping.[185]
  • Whelping – the act of a bitch giving birth.[185]
  • Whelps – puppies still dependent upon their dam.[185]

See also


  1. Jump up to:a b c d Thalmann, Olaf; Perri, Angela R. (2018). “Paleogenomic Inferences of Dog Domestication”. In Lindqvist, C.; Rajora, O. (eds.). Paleogenomics. Population Genomics. Springer, Cham. pp. 273–306. doi:10.1007/13836_2018_27ISBN 978-3-030-04752-8.
  2. Jump up to:a b Linnæus, Carl (1758). Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I (in Latin) (10 ed.). Holmiæ (Stockholm): Laurentius Salvius. pp. 38–40. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  3. Jump up to:a b Wozencraft, W. C. (2005). “Order Carnivora”. In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 575–577. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0OCLC 62265494(via Google Books)
  4. Jump up to:a b Alvares, Francisco; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Campbell, Liz A.D.; Godinho, Rachel; Hatlauf, Jennifer; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Kitchener, Andrew C.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Krofel, Miha; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Senn, Helen; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio; Viranta, Suvi; Werhahn, Geraldine (2019). “Old World Canis spp. with taxonomic ambiguity: Workshop conclusions and recommendations. CIBIO. Vairão, Portugal, 28th – 30th May 2019″ (PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  5. Jump up to:a b Wang & Tedford 2008, p. 1.
  6. Jump up to:a b Bergström, Anders; Frantz, Laurent; Schmidt, Ryan; Ersmark, Erik; Lebrasseur, Ophelie; Girdland-Flink, Linus; Lin, Audrey T.; Storå, Jan; Sjögren, Karl-Göran; Anthony, David; Antipina, Ekaterina; Amiri, Sarieh; Bar-Oz, Guy; Bazaliiskii, Vladimir I.; Bulatović, Jelena; Brown, Dorcas; Carmagnini, Alberto; Davy, Tom; Fedorov, Sergey; Fiore, Ivana; Fulton, Deirdre; Germonpré, Mietje; Haile, James; Irving-Pease, Evan K.; Jamieson, Alexandra; Janssens, Luc; Kirillova, Irina; Horwitz, Liora Kolska; Kuzmanovic-Cvetković, Julka; Kuzmin, Yaroslav; Losey, Robert J.; Dizdar, Daria Ložnjak; Mashkour, Marjan; Novak, Mario; Onar, Vedat; Orton, David; Pasaric, Maja; Radivojevic, Miljana; Rajkovic, Dragana; Roberts, Benjamin; Ryan, Hannah; Sablin, Mikhail; Shidlovskiy, Fedor; Stojanovic, Ivana; Tagliacozzo, Antonio; Trantalidou, Katerina; Ullén, Inga; Villaluenga, Aritza; Wapnish, Paula; Dobney, Keith; Götherström, Anders; Linderholm, Anna; Dalén, Love; Pinhasi, Ron; Larson, Greger; Skoglund, Pontus (2020). “Origins and genetic legacy of prehistoric dogs”Science370 (#6516): 557–564. doi:10.1126/science.aba9572PMC 7116352PMID 33122379S2CID 225956269.
  7. Jump up to:a b c d e Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Larson, Greger; Orlando, Ludovic (2020). “Animal domestication in the era of ancient genomics”Nature Reviews Genetics21 (#8): 449–460. doi:10.1038/s41576-020-0225-0PMID 32265525S2CID 214809393.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Freedman, Adam H; Wayne, Robert K (2017). “Deciphering the Origin of Dogs: From Fossils to Genomes”. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences5: 281–307. doi:10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-110937PMID 27912242S2CID 26721918.
  9. Jump up to:a b c Larson G, Bradley DG (2014). “How Much Is That in Dog Years? The Advent of Canine Population Genomics”PLOS Genetics10 (#1): e1004093. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004093PMC 3894154PMID 24453989.
  10. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wang, Guo-Dong; Larson, Greger; Vonholdt, Bridgett M.; Davis, Brian W.; Jagannathan, Vidyha; Hitte, Christophe; Wayne, Robert K.; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2019). “Dog10K: An international sequencing effort to advance studies of canine domestication, phenotypes, and health”National Science Review6 (#4): 810–824. doi:10.1093/nsr/nwz049PMC 6776107PMID 31598383.
  11. Jump up to:a b Axelsson, E.; Ratnakumar, A.; Arendt, M.L.; Maqbool, K.; Webster, M.T.; Perloski, M.; Liberg, O.; Arnemo, J.M.; Hedhammar, Å.; Lindblad-Toh, K. (2013). “The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet”Nature495 (#7441): 360–364. Bibcode:2013Natur.495..360Adoi:10.1038/nature11837PMID 23354050S2CID 4415412.
  12. Jump up to:a b c d e f g Dewey, T. and S. Bhagat. 2002. “Canis lupus familiaris, Animal Diversity Web.
  13. Jump up to:a b Berns, G.S.; Brooks, A.M.; Spivak, M. (2012). Neuhauss, Stephan C.F (ed.). “Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs”PLOS ONE7 (#5): e38027. Bibcode:2012PLoSO…738027Bdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038027PMC 3350478PMID 22606363.
  14. Jump up to:a b c Derr, Mark (1997). Dog’s Best Friend. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-14280-7.
  15. ^ Wang & Tedford 2008, p. 58.
  16. ^ Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1995). “2-Origins of the dog”. In Serpell, James (ed.). The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–20ISBN 978-0-521-41529-3.
  17. ^ Wayne, R.; Ostrander, Elaine A. (1999). “Origin, genetic diversity, and genome structure of the domestic dog”. BioEssays21 (#3): 247–257. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(199903)21:3<247::AID-BIES9>3.0.CO;2-ZPMID 10333734S2CID 5547543.
  18. ^ Jackson, Stephen M.; Groves, Colin P.; Fleming, Peter J.S.; Aplin, KEN P.; Eldridge, Mark D.B.; Gonzalez, Antonio; Helgen, Kristofer M. (2017). “The Wayward Dog: Is the Australian native dog or Dingo a distinct species?”Zootaxa4317 (#2): 201. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4317.2.1.
  19. ^ Smith 2015, pp. xi–24 Chapter 1 – Bradley Smith
  20. Jump up to:a b Perri, Angela R.; Feuerborn, Tatiana R.; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Larson, Greger; Malhi, Ripan S.; Meltzer, David J.; Witt, Kelsey E. (2021). “Dog domestication and the dual dispersal of people and dogs into the Americas”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences118 (#6): e2010083118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11810083Pdoi:10.1073/pnas.2010083118PMC 8017920PMID 33495362S2CID 231712420.
  21. ^ Janssens, Luc; Giemsch, Liane; Schmitz, Ralf; Street, Martin; Van Dongen, Stefan; Crombé, Philippe (2018). “A new look at an old dog: Bonn-Oberkassel reconsidered”Journal of Archaeological Science92: 126–138. Bibcode:2018JArSc..92..126Jdoi:10.1016/j.jas.2018.01.004hdl:1854/LU-8550758.
  22. Jump up to:a b Irving-Pease, Evan K.; Ryan, Hannah; Jamieson, Alexandra; Dimopoulos, Evangelos A.; Larson, Greger; Frantz, Laurent A. F. (2018). “Paleogenomics of Animal Domestication”. In Lindqvist, C.; Rajora, O. (eds.). Paleogenomics. Population Genomics. Springer, Cham. pp. 225–272. doi:10.1007/13836_2018_55ISBN 978-3-030-04752-8.
  23. ^ Larson G (2012). “Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography”PNAS109 (23): 8878–8883. Bibcode:2012PNAS..109.8878Ldoi:10.1073/pnas.1203005109PMC 3384140PMID 22615366.
  24. ^ Perri, Angela R.; Feuerborn, Tatiana R.; Frantz, Laurent A. F.; Larson, Greger; Malhi, Ripan S.; Meltzer, David J.; Witt, Kelsey E. (9 February 2021). “Dog domestication and the dual dispersal of people and dogs into the Americas”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences118 (6). Bibcode:2021PNAS..11810083Pdoi:10.1073/pnas.2010083118ISSN 0027-8424PMC 8017920PMID 33495362.
  25. Jump up to:a b c Cunliffe (2004), p. 12.
  26. Jump up to:a b c d e Fogle (2009), pp. 38–39.
  27. Jump up to:a b Jones & Hamilton (1971), p. 27.
  28. ^ Nießner, Christine; Denzau, Susanne; Malkemper, Erich Pascal; Gross, Julia Christina; Burda, Hynek; Winklhofer, Michael; Peichl, Leo (2016). “Cryptochrome 1 in Retinal Cone Photoreceptors Suggests a Novel Functional Role in Mammals”Scientific Reports6: 21848. Bibcode:2016NatSR…621848Ndoi:10.1038/srep21848PMC 4761878PMID 26898837.
  29. ^ Cunliffe (2004), pp. 22–23.
  30. ^ King, Camille; Smith, Thomas J.; Grandin, Temple; Borchelt, Peter (2016). “Anxiety and impulsivity: Factors associated with premature graying in young dogs”Applied Animal Behaviour Science185: 78–85. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2016.09.013.
  31. ^ Murphy, L.A.; Coleman, A.E. (2012). “Xylitol Toxicosis in Dogs”. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice42 (#2): 307–312. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2011.12.003PMID 22381181.
  32. ^ Fogle, Bruce (1974). Caring For Your Dog.
  33. Jump up to:a b Proschowsky, H.F.; H. Rugbjerg & A.K. Ersbell (2003). “Mortality of purebred and mixed-breed dogs in Denmark”. Preventive Veterinary Medicine58 (#1–2): 63–74. doi:10.1016/S0167-5877(03)00010-2PMID 12628771.
  34. Jump up to:a b Michell AR (1999). “Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationships with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease”. The Veterinary Record145 (#22): 625–629. doi:10.1136/vr.145.22.625PMID 10619607S2CID 34557345.
  35. ^ Patronek GJ, Waters DJ, Glickman LT (1997). “Comparative longevity of pet dogs and humans: implications for gerontology research”The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences52 (#3): B171–178. doi:10.1093/gerona/52A.3.B171PMID 9158552.
  36. ^ O’Neill, D.G.; Church, D.B.; McGreevy, P.D.; Thomson, P.C.; Brodbelt, D.C. (2013). “Longevity and mortality of owned dogs in England” (PDF). The Veterinary Journal198 (3): 638–643. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.020PMID 24206631.
  37. ^ Concannon, P; Tsutsui, T; Shille, V (2001). “Embryo development, hormonal requirements and maternal responses during canine pregnancy”. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility. Supplement57: 169–179. PMID 11787146.
  38. ^ “Dog Development – Embryology”. 16 June 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  39. ^ “Gestation in dogs”. Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  40. ^ “HSUS Pet Overpopulation Estimates”. The Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  41. ^ “Top 10 reasons to spay/neuter your pet”. American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
  42. ^ “Pets by the numbers”The Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved 3 March 2021.
  43. ^ Mahlow, Jane C. (1999). “Estimation of the proportions of dogs and cats that are surgically sterilized”. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association215 (#5): 640–643. PMID 10476708Although the cause of pet overpopulation is multifaceted, the relative lack of owners choosing to spay or neuter their animals is a major contributing factor.
  44. ^ Heidenberger, E; Unshelm, J (February 1990). “Changes in the behavior of dogs after castration”. Tierärztliche Praxis (in German). 18 (#1): 69–75. ISSN 0303-6286PMID 2326799.
  45. ^ Morrison, Wallace B. (1998). Cancer in Dogs and Cats (1st ed.). Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-683-06105-5.
  46. ^ Arnold S (1997). “[Urinary incontinence in castrated bitches. Part 1: Significance, clinical aspects and etiopathogenesis]”. Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde (in German). 139 (#6): 271–276. PMID 9411733.
  47. ^ Johnston, SD; Kamolpatana, K; Root-Kustritz, MV; Johnston, GR (July 2000). “Prostatic disorders in the dog”. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60–61: 405–415. doi:10.1016/S0378-4320(00)00101-9ISSN 0378-4320PMID 10844211.
  48. ^ Root-Kustritz MV (December 2007). “Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats”JAVMA231 (#11): 1665–1675. doi:10.2460/javma.231.11.1665ISSN 0003-1488PMID 18052800S2CID 4651194.
  49. ^ Leroy G (2011). “Genetic diversity, inbreeding and breeding practices in dogs: results from pedigree analyses”. Vet. J189 (#2): 177–182. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.06.016PMID 21737321.
  50. ^ Charlesworth D, Willis JH (2009). “The genetics of inbreeding depression”Nat. Rev. Genet10 (#11): 783–796. doi:10.1038/nrg2664PMID 19834483S2CID 771357.
  51. ^ Bernstein H, Hopf FA, Michod RE (1987). “The molecular basis of the evolution of sex”. Molecular Genetics of Development. pp. 323–370. doi:10.1016/s0065-2660(08)60012-7ISBN 978-0-12-017624-3PMID 3324702{{cite book}}|journal= ignored (help)
  52. ^ Leroy G, Phocas F, Hedan B, Verrier E, Rognon X (2015). “Inbreeding impact on litter size and survival in selected canine breeds” (PDF). Vet. J203 (#1): 74–78. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.11.008PMID 25475165S2CID 27631883.
  53. ^ Gresky C, Hamann H, Distl O (2005). “[Influence of inbreeding on litter size and the proportion of stillborn puppies in dachshunds]”. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. (in German). 118 (#3–4): 134–139. PMID 15803761.
  54. ^ van der Beek S, Nielen AL, Schukken YH, Brascamp EW (1999). “Evaluation of genetic, common-litter, and within-litter effects on preweaning mortality in a birth cohort of puppies”. Am. J. Vet. Res60 (#9): 1106–1110. PMID 10490080.
  55. ^ Levitis, Daniel A.; Lidicker, William Z. Jr.; Freund, Glenn (June 2009). “Behavioural biologists do not agree on what constitutes behaviour” (PDF). Animal Behaviour78 (#1): 103–110. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.03.018PMC 2760923PMID 20160973.
  56. ^ Tomasello, M.; Kaminski, J. (2009). “Like Infant, Like Dog”. Science325 (#5945): 1213–1214. doi:10.1126/science.1179670PMID 19729645S2CID 206522649.
  57. ^ Serpell J, Duffy D. Dog Breeds and Their Behavior. In: Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014
  58. Jump up to:a b c d e Cagan, Alex; Blass, Torsten (2016). “Identification of genomic variants putatively targeted by selection during dog domestication”BMC Evolutionary Biology16: 10. doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0579-7PMC 4710014PMID 26754411.
  59. ^ Cagan, Alex; Blass, Torsten (2016). “Identification of genomic variants putatively targeted by selection during dog domestication”BMC Evolutionary Biology16 (1): 10. doi:10.1186/s12862-015-0579-7ISSN 1471-2148PMC 4710014PMID 26754411.
  60. ^ Almada RC, Coimbra NC. Recruitment of striatonigral disinhibitory and nigrotectal inhibitory GABAergic pathways during the organization of defensive behavior by mice in a dangerous environment with the venomous snake Bothrops alternatus [ Reptilia, Viperidae ] Synapse 2015:n/a–n/a
  61. ^ Coppinger R, Schneider R: Evolution of working dogs. The domestic dog: Its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1995.
  62. ^ Bridgett M. von Holdt; Emily Shuldiner; Ilana Janowitz Koch; Rebecca Y. Kartzinel; Andrew Hogan; Lauren Brubaker; Shelby Wanser; Daniel Stahler; Clive D.L. Wynne; Elaine A. Ostrander; Janet S. Sinsheimer; Monique A.R. Udell (19 July 2017). “Structural variants in genes associated with human Williams-Beuren syndrome underlie stereotypical hypersociability in domestic dogs”Science Advances3 (#7): e1700398. Bibcode:2017SciA….3E0398Vdoi:10.1126/sciadv.1700398PMC 5517105PMID 28776031.
  63. ^ Pilley, John (2013). Chaser: Unlocking the genius of the dog who knows a thousand wordsHoughton Mifflin HarcourtISBN 978-0-544-10257-6.
  64. ^ Lea, Stephen E. G.; Osthaus, Britta (2018). “In what sense are dogs special? Canine cognition in comparative context”Learning & Behavior46 (4): 335–363. doi:10.3758/s13420-018-0349-7PMC 6276074PMID 30251104.
  65. ^ Sluka, Christina M.; Stanko, Kathleen; Campbell, Alexander; Cáceres, Johanel; Panoz-Brown, Danielle; Wheeler, Aidan; Bradley, Jordan; Allen, Colin (2018). “Incidental spatial memory in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)”Learning & Behavior46 (4): 513–521. doi:10.3758/s13420-018-0327-0PMID 29845456.
  66. ^ Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane (10 August 2016). “Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?”PLOS ONE11 (#8): e0159797. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1159797Pdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159797ISSN 1932-6203PMC 4980001PMID 27508932.
  67. ^ Smith, B.; Litchfield, C. (2010). “How well do dingoes (Canis dingo) perform on the detour task”Animal Behaviour80: 155–162. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.04.017S2CID 53153703.
  68. ^ Miklósi, A; Kubinyi, E; Topál, J; Gácsi, M; Virányi, Z; Csányi, V (April 2003). “A simple reason for a big difference: wolves do not look back at humans, but dogs do”Curr Biol13 (#9): 763–766. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(03)00263-XPMID 12725735S2CID 10200094.
  69. ^ Coren, Stanley How To Speak Dog: Mastering the Art of Dog-Human Communication, 2000 Simon & Schuster, New York.
  70. ^ Kaminski, Juliane; Hynds, Jennifer; Morris, Paul; Waller, Bridget M. (2017). “Human attention affects facial expressions in domestic dogs”Scientific Reports7 (1): 12914. Bibcode:2017NatSR…712914Kdoi:10.1038/s41598-017-12781-xPMC 5648750PMID 29051517.
  71. ^ Kaminski, Juliane; Waller, Bridget M.; Diogo, Rui; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Burrows, Anne M. (2019). “Evolution of facial muscle anatomy in dogs”Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences116 (29): 14677–14681. Bibcode:2019PNAS..11614677Kdoi:10.1073/pnas.1820653116PMC 6642381PMID 31209036.
  72. Jump up to:a b Young, Julie K.; Olson, Kirk A.; Reading, Richard P.; Amgalanbaatar, Sukh; Berger, Joel (1 February 2011). “Is Wildlife Going to the Dogs? Impacts of Feral and Free-roaming Dogs on Wildlife Populations”BioScience61 (#2): 125–132. doi:10.1525/bio.2011.61.2.7ISSN 0006-3568S2CID 6673698.
  73. ^ Daniels, Thomas; Bekoff, Marc (27 November 1989). “Population and Social Biology of Free-Ranging Dogs, Canis familiarisEcology Collection.
  74. ^ Hughes, Joelene; MacDonald, David W. (2013). “A review of the interactions between free-roaming domestic dogs and wildlife”. Biological Conservation157: 341–351. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.005.
  75. ^ Gompper, Matthew E. (2013). “Ch.1-The dog–human–wildlife interface: assessing the scope of the problem”. In Gompper, Matthew E (ed.). Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-19-181018-3.
  76. ^ Lord, Kathryn; Feinstein, Mark; Smith, Bradley; Coppinger, Raymond (2013). “Variation in reproductive traits of members of the genus Canis with special attention to the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)”. Behavioural Processes92: 131–142. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2012.10.009PMID 23124015S2CID 9748685.
  77. ^ Ortolani, A (2009). “Ethiopian village dogs: Behavioural responses to a stranger’s approach”. Applied Animal Behaviour Science119 (#3–4): 210–218. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2009.03.011.
  78. ^ Udell, M.A.R.; Dorey, N.R.; Wynne, C.D.L. (2010). “What did domestication do to dogs? A new account of dogs’ sensitivity to human actions”. Biological Reviews85 (#2): 327–345. CiteSeerX 19961472S2CID 11627064.
  79. Jump up to:a b c Lescureux, Nicolas; Linnell, John D.C. (2014). “Warring brothers: The complex interactions between wolves (Canis lupus) and dogs (Canis familiaris) in a conservation context”. Biological Conservation171: 232–245. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2014.01.032.
  80. ^ Vanak, A.T., Dickman, C.R., Silva-Rodriguez, E.A., Butler, J.R.A., Ritchie, E.G., 2014. Top-dogs and under-dogs: competition between dogs and sympatric carnivores. In: Gompper, M.E. (ed.), Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 69–93
  81. ^ Boitani & Mech 2003, pp. 259–264.
  82. ^ Boitani & Mech 2003, pp. 305–306.
  83. ^ Kojola, Ilpo; Ronkainen, Seppo; Hakala, Antero; Heikkinen, Samuli; Kokko, Sanna (2004). “Interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs C. familiaris in Finland”. Wildlife Biology10 (2): 101–105. doi:10.2981/wlb.2004.014S2CID 85973414.
  84. ^ Scott, Jonathan; Scott, Angela (2006). Big Cat Diary: Leopard. London: Collins. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-00-721181-4.
  85. ^ Gompper, Matthew E. (2013). Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation (1 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-19-164010-0.
  86. ^ “Striped Hyaena Hyaena (Hyaena) hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758)”. IUCN Species Survival Commission Hyaenidae Specialist Group. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
  87. ^ S.G. Pierzynowski; R. Zabielski (1999). Biology of the pancreas in growing animals. Vol. 28 of Developments in animal and veterinary sciences. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 417. ISBN 978-0-444-50217-9OCLC 247092084.
  88. ^ Smith, Cheryl S. (2008). “Chapter 6: Omnivores Together”Grab Life by the Leash: A Guide to Bringing Up and Bonding with Your Four-Legged Friend. John Wiley and Sons. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-470-17882-9.
  89. ^ Pajic, Petar; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Dean, Kirsten; Neznanova, Lubov; Romano, Rose-Anne; Garneau, Danielle; Daugherity, Erin; Globig, Anja; Ruhl, Stefan; Gokcumen, Omer (14 May 2019). “Independent amylase gene copy number bursts correlate with dietary preferences in mammals”eLife8doi:10.7554/eLife.44628PMC6516957PMID31084707.
  90. ^ “The Essentials of Canine Nutrition: Amino Acids and Other Nutrients” Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  91. ^ “Amino Acids for Dogs- Fortitude Canine”Fortitude. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  92. ^ “NRC Essential Nutrients: Amino Acids”Perfectly Rawsome. 12 January 2019. Retrieved 15 June 2023.
  93. ^ Fascetti, Andrea J.; Delaney, Sean J., eds. (2012). “7”Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition (1st ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-813-80657-0.
  94. ^ Hung, H.; Carson, Mike T.; Bellwood, Peter; et al. (2011). “The first settlement of Remote Oceania: The Philippines to the Marianas”Antiquity85 (#329): 909–926. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00068393.
  95. ^ Osborne, Douglas (1966). The archaeology of the Palau Islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin. Vol. 230. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-910240-58-1.
  96. ^ Intoh, Michiko; Shigehara, Nobuo (2004). “Prehistoric pig and dog remains from Fais Island, Micronesia”Anthropological Science112 (3): 257–267. doi:10.1537/ase.040511.
  97. Jump up to:a b Urban, Manfred (1961). Die Haustiere der Polynesier. Göttingen: Häntzschel.
  98. Jump up to:a b Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth (February 2015). “Ancient DNA and the human settlement of the Pacific: A review”. Journal of Human Evolution79: 93–104. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.10.017PMID 25556846.
  99. Jump up to:a b c d Forster, Johann Reinhold (1778). Observations Made During a Voyage Round the World. p. 188.
  100. ^ Sharp, Andrew (1964). Ancient Voyagers in Polynesia. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 120.
  101. ^ “Pitcairn’s Island”The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia10: 38. 1820.
  102. ^ “Did you know that dogs are banned from Antarctica?”South Pole 1911-2011
  103. ^ Miklósi, Adám (2007). Dog Behaviour, Evolution, and Cognition. Oxford University Press. pp. 95–136. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199295852.001.0001ISBN 978-0-19-929585-2.
  104. Jump up to:a b Wingfield-Hayes, Rupert (29 June 2002). “China’s taste for the exotic”BBC News.
  105. Jump up to:a b “Vietnam’s dog meat tradition”BBC News. 31 December 2001.
  106. ^ Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution. New York: Scribner. ISBN 978-0-684-85530-1.
  107. ^ Tacon, Paul; Pardoe, Colin (2002). “Dogs make us human”. Nature Australia27 (#4): 52–61.
  108. ^ Franklin, A (2006). “Be[a]ware of the Dog: a post-humanist approach to housing”. Housing, Theory and Society23 (#3): 137–156. doi:10.1080/14036090600813760ISSN 1403-6096S2CID 143444937.
  109. ^ Harper, Douglas. “doghouse”Online Etymology Dictionary.
  110. ^ Katz, Jon (2003). The New Work of Dogs. New York: Villard Books. ISBN 978-0-375-76055-6.
  111. ^ Haraway, Donna (2003). The Companion Species manifesto: Dogs, People and Significant Otherness. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. ISBN 978-0-9717575-8-5.
  112. Jump up to:a b c d Power, Emma (2008). “Furry Families: Making a Human-Dog Family through Home”. Social and Cultural Geography9 (#5): 535–555. doi:10.1080/14649360802217790S2CID 145660837.
  113. Jump up to:a b c Nast, Heidi J. (2006). “Loving … Whatever: Alienation, Neoliberalism and Pet-Love in the Twenty-First Century”. ACME: An International e-Journal for Critical Geographies5 (#2): 300–327. ISSN 1492-9732.
  114. ^ Lisa Jackson-Schebetta (2009). “Mythologies and Commodifications of Dominion in The Dog Whisperer with Cesar Millan” (PDF). Journal for Critical Animal Studies7 (1): 107–131. ISSN 1948-352XWikidata Q115264477.
  115. ^ Bradshaw, John; Blackwell, Emily J.; Casey, Rachel A. (2009). “Dominance in domestic dogs: useful construct or bad habit?” (PDF). Journal of Veterinary Behavior4 (#3): 135–144. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2008.08.004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2021.
  116. ^ Miklósi, Ádám (2018). The Dog: A Natural History. Princeton University Press. p. 75. ISBN 9780691176932.
  117. ^ Mech, L. David. (1999). “Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs”Canadian Journal of Zoology77 (8): 1196–1203. doi:10.1139/z99-099. Archived from the original on 14 December 2005.
  118. ^ Tannen, Deborah (2004). “Talking the Dog: Framing Pets as Interactional Resources in Family Discourse”. Research on Language and Social Interaction37 (#4): 399–420. doi:10.1207/s15327973rlsi3704_1ISSN 1532-7973S2CID 53406927.
  119. Jump up to:a b “U.S. Pet Ownership Statistics”. Archived from the original on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  120. ^ Andics, Attila; Gácsi, Márta; Faragó, Tamás; Kis, Anna; Miklósi, Ádám (2014). “Voice-Sensitive Regions in the Dog and Human Brain Are Revealed by Comparative fMRI”Current Biology24 (5): 574–578. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.058PMID 24560578.
  121. ^ Nagasawa, Miho; Murai, Kensuke; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi (2011). “Dogs can discriminate human smiling faces from blank expressions”. Animal Cognition14 (4): 525–533. doi:10.1007/s10071-011-0386-5PMID 21359654S2CID 12354384.
  122. ^ Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel (2016). “Dogs recognize dog and human emotions”Biology Letters12 (1): 20150883. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2015.0883PMC 4785927PMID 26763220.
  123. ^ Williams, Tully (2007). Working Sheep Dogs. Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 978-0-643-09343-0.
  124. ^ Serpell, James (1995). “Origins of the dog: domestication and early history”The Domestic Dog. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-41529-3.
  125. ^ Vikki Fenton, The use of dogs in search, rescue and recoveryJournal of Wilderness Medicine Vol. 3, Issue 3, August 1992, pp. 292–300.
  126. ^ John J. Ensminger, Police and Military Dogs: Criminal Detection, Forensic Evidence, and Judicial Admissibility (CRC Press, 2012).
  127. ^ Philip Shernomay, “Dogs Take Their Place in Arsenal Against Chemical Attack”The New York Times (13 May 2003).
  128. ^ Alex Wellerstein (3 November 2017). “Remembering Laika, Space Dog and Soviet Hero”The New Yorker.
  129. ^ Solovyov, Dmitry; Pearce, Tim, eds. (11 April 2008). “Russia fetes dog Laika, first earthling in space”Reuters.
  130. ^ Audrestch, Hilary M.; Whelan, Chantelle T.; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C.W.; Freeman, Sarah L. (2015). “Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society” (PDF). Disability and Health Journal8 (#4): 469–474. doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2015.07.001PMID 26364936S2CID 23502241. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  131. ^ Walther, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Thigpen, A.P.; Garcia, A.; Willits, N.H.; Hart, L.A. (2017). “Assistance Dogs: Historic Patterns and Roles of Dogs Placed by ADI or IGDF Accredited Facilities and by Non-Accredited U.S. Facilities”Frontiers in Veterinary Science4: 1. doi:10.3389/fvets.2017.00001PMC 5243836PMID 28154816.
  132. ^ Dalziel DJ, Uthman BM, Mcgorray SP, Reep RL (2003). “Seizure-alert dogs: a review and preliminary study”Seizure12 (#2): 115–120. doi:10.1016/S105913110200225XPMID 12566236S2CID 2413847.
  133. ^ Kim Kavin (3 May 2016). The Dog Merchants: Inside the Big Business of Breeders, Pet Stores, and RescuersSimon and SchusterISBN 978-1-68177-170-0.
  134. ^ Anna Bueno (6 January 2017). “The legal and cultural implications of killing a dog for film”CNN Philippines.
  135. ^ Simoons, Frederick J. (1994). Eat not this flesh: food avoidances from prehistory to the present (second ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 208–212. ISBN 978-0-299-14254-4.
  136. ^ “How many dogs and cats are eaten in Asia?”. Archived from the original on 25 January 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  137. ^ “China bans dog meat at infamous Yulin festival”The Independent. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  138. ^ Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable Cuisine. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. p. 173ISBN 978-0-8139-1162-5.
  139. ^ “Poland prosecutors probe dog lard sale”United Press International. 10 August 2009.
  140. ^ Day, Matthew (7 August 2009). “Polish couple accused of making dog meat delicacy”. London: Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  141. ^ Ayzirek Imanaliyeva (13 August 2020). “Fighting COVID in Kyrgyzstan: Dog fat, ginger and bloodletting”Eurasianet. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  142. ^ “Dog meat restaurants spring up in Uzbekistan” 2009. Archived from the original on 16 June 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  143. ^ William Saletan (16 January 2002). “Wok The Dog – What’s wrong with eating man’s best friend?”Slate. Retrieved 23 July 2007.
  144. ^ “Korea dog meat campaigners accused of hypocrisy”The Straits TimesAgence France-Presse. 27 December 2017.
  145. ^ Ahmed Zihni (2004). “Dog Meat Dilemma”Stony Brook University – The Program in Writing and Rhetoric. Archived from the original on 11 August 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
  146. ^ John Feffer (2 June 2002). “The Politics of Dog – When globalization and culinary practice clash”The American ProspectArchived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  147. Jump up to:a b Pettid, Michael J., Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2008, 25. ISBN 978-1-86189-348-2
  148. ^ WHO expert consultation on rabies: Third report, vol. WHO Technical Report Series, 931, World Health Organisation, 2018, hdl:10665/272364ISBN 978-92-4-121021-8
  149. ^ “Animal bites Fact sheet”World Health Organization. February 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  150. ^ Tierney, DM; Strauss, LP; Sanchez, JL (2006). “Capnocytophaga canimorsus Mycotic Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Why the Mailman Is Afraid of Dogs”Journal of Clinical Microbiology44 (#2): 649–651. doi:10.1128/JCM.44.2.649-651.2006PMC 1392675PMID 16455937.
  151. ^ “Injury Prevention Bulletin” (PDF). Northwest Territories Health and Social Services. 25 March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2010.
  152. ^ Bewley, BR (1985). “Medical hazards from dogs”British Medical Journal291 (#6498): 760–761. doi:10.1136/bmj.291.6498.760PMC 1417177PMID 3929930.
  153. ^ Huh, Sun; Lee, Sooung (20 August 2008). “Toxocariasis”. Retrieved 15 February 2013.
  154. ^ “Toxocariasis”Kids’ Health. The Nemours Foundation. 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  155. ^ Chiodo, Paula; Basualdo, Juan; Ciarmela, Laura; Pezzani, Betina; Apezteguía, María; Minvielle, Marta (2006). “Related factors to human toxocariasis in a rural community of Argentina”Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz101 (#4): 397–400. doi:10.1590/S0074-02762006000400009PMID 16951810.
  156. ^ Talaizadeh, A.H.; Maraghi2, S.; Jelowdar, A.; Peyvasteh, M. (October–December 2007). “Human toxocariasis: A report of 3 cases”Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly23 (#5). Part I.
  157. Jump up to:a b McNicholas, June; Gilbey, Andrew; Rennie, Ann; Ahmedzai, Sam; Dono, Jo-Ann; Ormerod, Elizabeth (2005). “Pet ownership and human health: A brief review of evidence and issues”BMJ331 (#7527): 1252–1254. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7527.1252PMC 1289326PMID 16308387.
  158. ^ Podberscek, A.L. (2006). “Positive and Negative Aspects of Our Relationship with Companion Animals”Veterinary Research Communications30 (#1): 21–27. doi:10.1007/s11259-006-0005-0S2CID 43327044.
  159. ^ Winefield, Helen R.; Black, Anne; Chur-Hansen, Anna (2008). “Health effects of ownership of and attachment to companion animals in an older population”International Journal of Behavioral Medicine15 (#4): 303–310. doi:10.1080/10705500802365532PMID 19005930S2CID 30808366.
  160. ^ Headey B. (1999). “Health benefits and health cost savings due to pets: preliminary estimates from an Australian national survey”Social Indicators Research47 (#2): 233–243. doi:10.1023/A:1006892908532S2CID 142618092.
  161. Jump up to:a b Serpell J (1991). “Beneficial effects of pet ownership on some aspects of human health and behaviour”Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine84 (#12): 717–20. doi:10.1177/014107689108401208PMC 1295517PMID 1774745.
  162. ^ Friedmann E, Thomas SA (1995). “Pet ownership, social support, and one-year survival after acute myocardial infarction in the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST)”. The American Journal of Cardiology76 (#17): 1213–1217. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(99)80343-9PMID 7502998.
  163. ^ Christian, Hayley E.; Westgarth, Carri; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Elizabeth A.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Mayer, Joni A.; Thorpe, Roland J. (2013). “Dog Ownership and Physical Activity: A Review of the Evidence”Journal of Physical Activity and Health10 (5): 750–759. doi:10.1123/jpah.10.5.750ISSN 1543-3080PMID 23006510S2CID 14863668.
  164. ^ Wilson CC (1991). “The pet as an anxiolytic intervention”. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease179 (#8): 482–489. doi:10.1097/00005053-199108000-00006PMID 1856711S2CID 22321266.
  165. ^ McNicholas, J.; Collis, G. M. (2006). “Animals as social supports: Insights for understanding animal assisted therapy”. In Fine, Aubrey H. (ed.). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 49–71. ISBN 978-0-12-369484-3.
  166. ^ Eddy J, Hart LA, Boltz RP (1988). “The effects of service dogs on social acknowledgments of people in wheelchairs”. The Journal of Psychology122 (#1): 39–45. doi:10.1080/00223980.1988.10542941PMID 2967371S2CID 26115902.
  167. ^ Wood, Lisa; Martin, Karen; Christian, Hayley; Nathan, Andrea; Lauritsen, Claire; Houghton, Steve; Kawachi, Ichiro; McCune, Sandra (2015). “The Pet Factor – Companion Animals as a Conduit for Getting to Know People, Friendship Formation and Social Support”PLOS ONE10 (#4): e0122085. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1022085Wdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122085PMC 4414420PMID 25924013.
  168. ^ Kruger, K.A. & Serpell, J.A. (2006). Animal-assisted interventions in mental health: Definitions and theoretical foundations, In Fine, A.H. (ed.), Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: Theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice. San Diego, CA, Academic Press: 21–38. ISBN 978-0-12-369484-3
  169. ^ Batson, K.; McCabe, B.; Baun, M.M.; Wilson, C. (1998). “The effect of a therapy dog on socialization and psychological indicators of stress in persons diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease”. In Turner, Dennis C.; Wilson, Cindy C. (eds.). Companion animals in human health. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 203–215. ISBN 978-0-7619-1061-9.
  170. ^ Katcher, A.H.; Wilkins, G.G. (2006). “The Centaur’s Lessons: Therapeutic education through care of animals and nature study”. In Fine, Aubrey H. (ed.). Handbook on animal-assisted therapy: theoretical foundations and guidelines for practice. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 153–177. ISBN 978-0-12-369484-3.
  171. ^ “Animal Symbolism in Art and Culture”
  172. Jump up to:a b c Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (1992). Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia: An Illustrated Dictionary. The British Museum Press. pp. 70, 101. ISBN 978-0-7141-1705-8.
  173. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Sherman, Josepha (2008). Storytelling: An Encyclopedia of Mythology and Folklore. Sharpe Reference. pp. 118–121. ISBN 978-0-7656-8047-1.
  174. Jump up to:a b James Patrick MalloryDouglas Q. Adams (2006). The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European WorldOxford University Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-19-929668-2OL 7405541MWikidata Q115264582.
  175. Jump up to:a b West, Martin Litchfield (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 392. ISBN 978-0-19-928075-9.
  176. ^ Oskar Seyffert (1901). A Dictionary of Classical Antiquities: Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art (6 ed.). Swan Sonnenschein and Co. p. 271. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  177. ^ “Indian Myth and Legend: Chapter III. Yama, the First Man, and King of the Dead”. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  178. ^ “Dogs in Hinduism”. Hindu Human Rights Worldwide. 23 August 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2022.
  179. Jump up to:a b “”Hounds of the Lord”: The Little-Known Meaning of the Dominican Dog”. ChurchPOP. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  180. ^ Dyer, Thomas Firminger Thiselton (1898). The Ghost World. Ward & Downey. pp. 125–126. ISBN 9781859585474.
  181. ^ Khaled Abou El Fadl (2004). “Dogs in the Islamic Tradition and Nature”Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature. New York: Scholar of the House.
  182. ^ Coren, Stanley (23 March 2010). “Dogs and Islam: The Devil and the Seeing-Eye Dog”Psychology Today. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  183. ^ HarperCollins (2021)“dog”.
  184. ^ HarperCollins (2021)“bitch”.
  185. Jump up to:a b c d e f Alderton, David (1987). The dog: the most complete, illustrated, practical guide to dogs and their world. London: New Burlington Books. pp. 200–203. ISBN 978-0-948872-13-6.